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Rising Tides, Sinking Cities: How Climate Change is Driving More Extreme Flooding

By Engr. John Cee Onwualu (FNSE)

Climate change continues to threaten our planet, with the most immediate threat being extreme flooding.

Rising tides and sinking cities have become a stark reality with devastating consequences for many communities around the world. It’s a global problem that requires immediate attention and action from governments, businesses, and individuals.

In recent years, increased levels of carbon dioxide emissions have led to warmer ocean temperatures and melting polar ice caps, causing sea levels to rise. The impact of these changes has been acutely felt in many coastal areas in Nigeria, as an example, causing more intense and frequent flooding.

This blog post will explore the relationship between climate change and extreme flooding, and how it is affecting cities and towns across the world. We will examine the science behind rising sea levels and how it affects our coasts, as well as the social and economic impact of flooding.

We will also take a closer look at the strategies and technologies being used to mitigate the effects of climate change on flooding.

1. Climate change is causing sea levels to rise, leading to an increased risk of flooding in coastal cities.

As the Earth’s temperature continues to warm, it accelerates melting glaciers and ice sheets, leading to an increase in sea levels. This rise in sea levels is causing flooding in many coastal cities worldwide.

Flooding is now becoming a significant problem, and the situation is expected to worsen in the coming years if remedial measures are not taken. This problem is not just limited to coastal cities but is also affecting inland areas.

For instance, in Nigeria, the tributaries to the River Niger are experiencing frequent and more severe flooding, causing significant damage to properties and basic infrastructure.

The flooding issue in these coastal cities and other areas is complex, but drainage problems happen to be a significant reason for the increased flooding. That is why it is essential to develop effective drainage solutions to alleviate the immediate and long-term impact of this problem.

2. Warmer temperatures are causing more extreme weather events, including heavy rainfall and storms that exacerbate flooding.

Warmer temperatures associated with climate change are resulting in an increase in extreme weather events, including intense rainfall and storms that exacerbate flooding. This issue is particularly concerning for areas like the tributaries to the River Niger, where frequent flooding is already a significant problem.

As already stated, to address the impact of climate change on flooding, it is essential to identify and prioritize effective drainage solutions.

Addressing drainage problems on smaller scales, such as urban areas and rural farms, can help mitigate the effects of extreme weather events in the long term.

Through collaboration and innovative problem-solving, local governments, community groups, and private industry can work together to develop sustainable drainage solutions that can effectively manage floodwater during extreme weather events.

Ultimately, it will take a comprehensive approach to address the growing challenge of flooding caused by global climate change.

3. Cities need to invest in infrastructure to protect against flooding, including sea walls and drainage systems.

In order to safeguard coastal urban regions, public administrators must invest in comprehensive infrastructure solutions that can protect against the devastating effects of flooding.

As sea levels continue to rise due to climate change and more intense rainfall, the risk of flooding grows larger every year. In order to mitigate the impact of flooding, cities need to invest in drainage solutions that can remove excess water from streets and buildings, reducing the likelihood of standing water causing damage.

Furthermore, cities need to install seawalls and levees in order to prevent water from rising and potentially inundating low-lying areas.

However, it is important to note that drainage problems exist in many urban areas across the globe, with outdated infrastructure contributing to the issue. Therefore, more investment and attention are necessary in order to protect millions of people from the consequences of rising seas and severe weather patterns.

4. Individuals can also take steps to prepare for flooding, such as creating an emergency plan and purchasing flood insurance.

In addition to implementing drainage solutions to address drainage problems, individuals can take steps to prepare for the increasing risk of flooding caused by climate change.

Creating an emergency plan and purchasing flood insurance are key actions that can help mitigate the potential financial impact of flooding.

An emergency plan should outline what to do in the event of a flood, including where to evacuate, important phone numbers and medical information, and a plan for pets or livestock.

5. The economic costs of flooding are staggering, including damage to property and infrastructure, disrupted business operations, and lost productivity.

Flooding is an issue that has plagued humanity for centuries, and due to climate change, its severity has only worsened. The economic costs of flooding are staggering, affecting homes, businesses, and critical infrastructure.

In many parts of the world, cyclical flooding has created a persistent challenge for communities. Further, drainage problems exacerbate flooding, and the need for drainage solutions is more critical than ever.

The cost of unmitigated flooding can be difficult to quantify as it can affect both the present and future productivity of entire regions. It is essential for governments and businesses to take proactive steps to address flooding issues and prepare for the challenges that lie ahead.

6. Low-income communities and marginalized groups are often hit the hardest by flooding, exacerbating existing inequalities.

Flooding is a natural disaster that has become increasingly frequent and severe due to climate change. It affects not only individuals but also entire communities and cities, causing significant damage to infrastructure and creating health hazards.

Low-income communities and marginalized groups are often hit the hardest by flooding, exacerbating existing inequalities.

In particular, Tributaries to the River Niger, such as the Benue and Kaduna rivers, have been known to flood regularly, wiping out farms, homes, and businesses.

Additionally, drainage problems often occur, leading to more frequent flooding. Improper drainage solutions can cause water to accumulate instead of being carried away, leading to standing water which can become a breeding ground for disease-carrying insects, such as mosquitoes.

Addressing these challenges requires a multi-faceted approach that incorporates sustainable city planning, disaster preparedness, and community resilience.

7. Climate change is a global problem that requires international cooperation to solve.

One of the most pressing issues facing our planet is climate change, which has led to the increased frequency and severity of natural disasters, including floods. This is particularly evident in a country like Nigeria, where flooding has become a recurring problem.

Unfortunately, addressing this requires more than just local action; climate change is a global problem that requires international cooperation to solve. In addition to implementing various drainage solutions, it is essential that we engage in collaborative efforts with other nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the effects of climate change.

Failure to act quickly and effectively could result in more extreme flooding events, causing significant damage and loss of life. It is time for us to take action to address these pressing global challenges.

Read Also: Navigating the Risks of Floods: Civil Engineering Strategies for Managing Flood-Prone Areas

8. While reducing carbon emissions is essential for addressing climate change in the long term, immediate action is also needed to adapt to the impacts of rising seas and extreme weather.

In the context of climate change, the increasing frequency and intensity of flooding events in coastal cities is an impetus for immediate action.

Although reducing carbon emissions is one of the primary solutions to addressing climate change in the long term, it is essential to prioritize measures to adapt to immediate impacts such as rising seas and extreme weather.

Given the urgency of the situation, climate change adaptation planning needs to emphasize timely intervention while also promoting strategies that address the root causes of extreme weather events such as deforestation and other anthropogenic activities that exacerbate climate change.

Read Also: 7 Ways To Handle Flooding in Any Part of Nigeria

9. Many cities are already taking steps to adapt and become more resilient to flooding.

As discussed, flooding is a serious issue that affects many cities around the world, and the problem is only getting worse due to climate change. However, many cities are already taking steps to become more resilient to flooding and mitigate its impact.

For instance, in the region surrounding the Niger River in West Africa, many cities have implemented drainage solutions to manage the tributaries that feed into the river during heavy rainfall.

These solutions include building retention ponds, improving urban green spaces, and revamping the drainage system. Likewise, in many other urban areas, communities are working to create green infrastructure, such as permeable pavement and green roofs, to effectively manage stormwater runoff.

While these efforts are not guaranteed solutions to flooding problems, they do offer a path forward towards a more resilient and sustainable urban future. Ultimately, it is important for cities to continue to explore new solutions and evaluate the effectiveness of existing approaches to address the pressing issue of flooding and related drainage problems.

Read Also: Assessing Quality Civil Engineering Practices in Nigeria

In conclusion, rising sea levels and more frequent and extreme weather events driven by climate change are putting many coastal cities around the world at risk of flooding. This issue should be an urgent concern for policymakers, city planners, and residents alike.

Unless serious action is taken to mitigate the effects of climate change, the problem of flooding is likely to get worse in the coming years, resulting in devastating consequences for communities and economies alike.

It is critical that we all work together to find effective solutions to prevent rising tides and sinking cities.

Want to hire a stormwater construction company? Read this first:

7 Things You Need to Know Before Hiring A STORMWATER CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

Navigating the Risks of Floods: Civil Engineering Strategies for Managing Flood-Prone Areas

By Engr. John Cee Onwualu (FNSE)

A wise man adapts himself to circumstances, as water shapes itself to the vessel that contains it.” – Chinese Proverb

Flooding is a major concern in many areas, causing damage and destruction to homes, businesses, and communities. In addition to the physical damage, floods can lead to significant economic losses. Several Civil engineering strategies can help manage and reduce the risk of floods in flood-prone areas.

In this article, we explore the key strategies that civil engineers use to help protect communities from the risks of flooding. We discuss the importance of planning for floods, the different types of flood defenses, and the best practices for maintaining flood management systems.

Additionally, we provide insights into how civil engineers are working to make communities more resilient to floods. With the right strategies in place, we can help to reduce the impact of flooding and protect communities from the risks associated with floods.

Understand the Importance of Thorough Hydrological Studies

The first step in managing the risks of flooding is to understand the importance of thorough hydrological studies. These studies are essential to identify the potential causes of flooding and the potential impacts of the flood event.

Hydrological studies are used to gather data on the physical characteristics of the area, such as the size, shape, and flow of the river networks and catchment areas, as well as the soil and bedrock characteristics.

This information is then used to create models of the flooding, which can be analyzed and used to develop flood management strategies.


Utilize Structural Approaches Such As Dykes And Levees

Structural approaches such as dykes and levees have long been utilized to mitigate the risks posed by flooding. Dykes, also known as dams, are built to contain and divert water away from areas prone to flooding.

Levees are raised banks of earth along a body of water, which are designed to redirect water away from a specific area.

Both dykes and levees are effective in providing protection from flooding, although they are not without their drawbacks. As such, it is important to weigh the costs and benefits of implementing these flood control measures before making a decision.

Develop Flood Forecasting Systems

One of the most important strategies for managing floods in flood-prone areas is developing flood forecasting systems. Flood forecasting systems can use radar, weather stations, and other data sources to predict the probability of flooding in a given area.

This information can then be used to inform plans for building and infrastructure development, as well as alerting the public to the potential danger of flooding. Accurate and reliable flood forecasting systems are invaluable tools for civil engineers, as they provide an extra layer of protection to communities and infrastructure in flood-prone areas.

Consider Non-Structural Approaches Such As Floodplain Zoning

As we have discussed, civil engineering strategies are an essential tool for managing flood-prone areas. However, non-structural approaches should also be taken into account. For example, floodplain zoning can be used to restrict the types of activities that can take place in an area at risk of flooding. This approach can be used to reduce the risk of damage to structures and loss of life, by limiting the number of people and buildings in a flood-prone area.

Additionally, it can help to ensure that flood-prone areas are managed in a sustainable manner, by limiting the amount of development that takes place in a designated floodplain.

Incorporate Vegetation Management Strategies

Incorporating vegetation management strategies into civil engineering plans for flood-prone areas is a key part of mitigating the risks associated with flooding.

Vegetation can be used to slow and retain the flow of water, absorb floodwater, and even provide a buffer zone to protect against floods.

These strategies should be factored into the overall civil engineering plans for flood-prone areas and implemented in a way that maximizes the positive effects of vegetation on reducing flooding risks.

Furthermore, vegetation management strategies should be regularly monitored and adjusted as needed to ensure they remain effective.

Create City-Level Infrastructure and Urban Planning Strategies

Among the strategies for managing flood-prone areas is the development of city-level infrastructure and urban planning strategies. This includes the installation of stormwater systems and diversion systems.

Such infrastructure can reduce the risk of flooding by increasing the capacity of the city to manage stormwater runoff. Additionally, urban planning strategies can help reduce risk by ensuring that building codes are updated to account for changes in weather patterns and water levels.

Such strategies also involve assessing the vulnerability of existing infrastructure and identifying areas that are prone to flooding.

Increase Public Awareness of Flood Risks and Preventive Measures

Increasing public awareness of flood risks and preventive measures is an important part of any flood management strategy. In addition to educating people about the risks, it is also important to provide them with practical tips to protect themselves and their property in the event of a flood.

This may include recommending specific building materials for new construction in flood-prone areas, educating people about the importance of proper drainage to reduce flooding risk, and teaching people how to secure their home against floodwaters.

It is also important to provide information on the steps that can be taken to reduce the impact of a flood, such as removing personal belongings from the basement or lowest levels of a home.

By increasing public awareness of the risks and preventive measures, it is possible to reduce the impact of flooding on communities.

Employ Risk-Reduction Strategies Such as Flood Insurance

To reduce the risk of flood damage and loss of life, all civil engineers working in areas prone to flooding should employ risk-reduction strategies such as flood insurance. By obtaining this coverage, communities can be better protected against the financial losses associated with floods.

Furthermore, such insurance policies can help cover the costs of repairing damage to infrastructure, such as roads and bridges, that are affected by flooding.

Risk-reduction strategies should also include the implementation of emergency evacuation plans to ensure the safety of those in the area when flooding occurs.

Utilize Modern Technologies for Monitoring Floods and Flood Prediction

In recent years, civil engineers have begun to look to modern technologies to mitigate the risks of floods. Smart sensors and remote sensing technologies, such as satellites and drones, can be used to monitor flood levels and give early warning of impending floods.

These technologies make it possible to predict floods more accurately and plan for appropriate responses. Additionally, predictive modeling can help civil engineers devise strategies to prevent floods and their associated risks.

By taking advantage of modern technologies, civil engineers can more effectively manage floods and protect communities in flood-prone areas.

Read Also: 7 Ways To Handle Flooding in Any Part of Nigeria

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, floods present a substantial risk to populations, property, and ecosystems around the world.

Civil engineering strategies, such as structural controls, non-structural controls, and floodplain management, are important tools for mitigating the risks posed by floods. However, civil engineers must also consider the potential impacts of their strategies and collaborate with local stakeholders to ensure that their strategies are adapted to the needs of the local community.

By taking a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary approach to flood management, civil engineers can help to reduce the risks associated with floods.

Visit Jefcon & Associates Ltd.

Assessing Quality Civil Engineering Practices in Nigeria

By Engr. John Cee Onwualu (FNSE)

The quality of Civil Engineering practices in Nigeria has become an increasingly important priority in recent years. As the country continues to grow and change, it is important that these practises meet the standards of a modern, wealthy country.

Assessing the quality of Civil Engineering practices in Nigeria is crucial to establishing a secure, efficient infrastructure that is critical to the country’s future. Quality engineering practices enable the country to realize the potential of its resources, reduce costs and improve safety.

This article explores the existing quality engineering practices in Nigeria, their impact on the nation’s infrastructure, and how they can be further improved. It will provide an overview of the current state of Civil Engineering practices in Nigeria, including the challenges and opportunities that can be addressed.

Additionally, it discusses how government policies, industry regulations, and investments can help improve engineering practices in the nation. By assessing quality engineering practices in Nigeria, it is possible to create a secure and efficient infrastructure that enables the nation to realize its potential.

Understand the quality engineering principles and practices in Nigeria

Quality engineering is a critical element of any successful product or service. Without a full understanding of quality engineering principles and practises, it is hard to come up with and deliver solutions that meet customer expectations.

In Nigeria, quality engineering is particularly important as it enables organizations to identify, prevent, and correct problems in a systematic and effective manner.

To assess the quality engineering practices in Nigeria, it is essential to review the current state of quality engineering principles and practices, identify opportunities for improvement, and develop an implementation plan to ensure that quality engineering is consistently applied to all projects.

Analyze quality engineering standards in the Nigerian market

A key part of figuring out how quality engineering is done in Nigeria is to look at the standards for quality engineering in the Nigerian market.

Quality engineering standards are typically based on the international standards set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and other standards organizations. However, these standards may need to be adapted to the unique needs of the Nigerian market.

An examination of existing quality engineering standards in the Nigerian market can help assess the presence and levels of standards compliance, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the existing standards in the Nigerian market. Such an analysis can provide important input in formulating quality engineering practices in Nigeria.

Analyze the current quality engineering tools in the Nigerian market

As part of figuring out how quality engineering is done in Nigeria, we need to look at the tools available on the Nigerian market. This will give us a better idea of how well these tools can meet the needs of Nigerian organizations.

To do this, we must analyze the features of the tools, the cost of the tools, the customer support and training provided by the tools, and the scalability of the tools.

Additionally, we must assess the level of adoption of the tools among Nigerian organizations. By doing this analysis, we can determine the best tools to use in order to ensure quality engineering practices are implemented in Nigeria.

Identify the gaps in quality engineering practice in the Nigerian market

On the Nigerian market, there are some holes in the quality of engineering practises that keep it from reaching its full potential.

First, not enough people in the Nigerian market understand how important good engineering is. This leads to inadequate resources and training devoted to quality engineering.

Second, inadequate staff and equipment make it difficult to conduct quality assurance testing.

Third, there is a gap in the use of best practices and standards, as well as access to certifications.

Finally, there is a lack of a well-defined quality engineering framework in Nigeria. These assessments will provide an overview of the current quality engineering practices in Nigeria, and identify the gaps that need to be addressed.

Analyze quality engineering processes used in Nigeria

In Nigeria, quality engineering processes have been advancing rapidly in recent years. To properly assess the quality engineering processes used in Nigeria, it is important to look at the technical infrastructure and regulations in place, the skills of the personnel, the quality assurance systems and the technological basis used to support the process.

Additionally, it is important to consider the cultural and organizational aspects of Nigerian quality engineering processes, such as the country’s traditional engineering practices and the value systems used in most Civil Engineering organizations.

By conducting a comprehensive evaluation of these factors, it will be possible to determine the effectiveness of the quality engineering processes in Nigeria.

Develop recommendations for improving quality engineering practices in Nigeria

The purpose of this assessment was to determine the current state of quality Civil Engineering practices in Nigeria. After looking at the collected data, a number of suggestions can be made to improve the quality of Civil Engineering practices in Nigeria.

1. Increase the number of skilled quality engineers through training and certification programs.

2. Implement industry-wide quality standards and guidelines.

3. Identify and invest in quality Civil Engineering technologies to reduce costs.

4. Encourage the Nigerian Society of Engineers to promote quality engineering practices.

5. Improve the availability of quality engineering tools and resources.

6. Provide incentives for quality engineering processes and products.

7. Increase the level of collaboration between engineering teams in Nigeria.

8. Foster and encourage a culture of quality engineering best practices.

9. Provide quality engineering education and training opportunities for all levels of engineers.

10. Establish a quality engineering audit process to ensure compliance with quality engineering standards.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, quality engineering practices in Nigeria have been assessed to have areas for improvement.

With the right help, resources, and time, Nigerian quality engineers can keep improving their methods to make sure safety and quality. With these improvements, Nigerian companies have the potential to grow into successful global businesses that can compete in the international market.

8 important Facts About Stormwater Drainage Systems

By Engr. John Cee Onwualu

“Stormwater drainage systems are essential to our health and safety – they help protect us from flooding and prevent water pollution, making them an important part of our infrastructure.” Engr. John Cee Onwualu

What is a Stormwater Drainage System?

A stormwater drainage system is an infrastructure constructed to receive and evacuate precipitation from rainfall runoff on the road surface and from the surrounding environment.

A stormwater drainage system can be made of concrete or steel structures and come in different shapes and sizes. It could serve as a surface drainage system or conduit (sewer) drainage system.

Why are Stormwater Drainage Systems Needed?

A stormwater drainage system is needed to evacuate excess floodwater from the environment that could not be absorbed by the soil due to the soil pores attaining a supersaturated state, thereby preventing damage to life and properties by conveying this excess floodwater to the streams or rivers.

How does a Stormwater Drainage System Work?

A stormwater drainage system is an infrastructure constructed as a receiver of precipitated rainfall runoff from the surface of the road or environment, which it efficiently and safely conveys to a bigger waterbody or river.

How do you fix or clean a Stormwater Drainage?

For the fact that stormwater drainage conveys flood water, it contains suspended debris or loose soil particles as it flows along its path which it drops as silt deposit as the flow velocity reduces.

These deposits are manually or mechanically excavated periodically. A stormwater drainage system can be constructed as a precast member or cast-in-place concrete member.

What is the difference between a Drainage System and a Drainage Pattern?

A drainage system is defined as a channel that conveys surface water from precipitation into a waterbody or wetland while a drainage pattern is a pattern created on the surface of the earth by erosion, stream, or river flow over a particular area.

Drainage patterns are more noticeable in areas with steep gradients and poor topography.

How do you drain a Stormwater Runoff?

A stormwater runoff is a result of precipitation from excessive rainfall, which the soil is not able to absorb by infiltration. It is drained by the construction of earth drain channels, concrete drain channels or steel sheet channels.

How do you design a Stormwater Drainage System?

Stormwater drainage systems can be designed through the following procedures:

  1. Having a good knowledge of the topography of the area
  2. Identification of the drainage basin
  3. Collection of surface ground data for rainfall modelling
  4. Knowledge of imperviousness and soil types
  5. Identification and location of underground services
  6. Creation of drainage boundaries or catchments
  7. Computation of peak discharges from each Sub-catchment or catchment areas using the Rational formula: Q = CiA
  8. Design and selection of channel sections, using the continuity equion of Manning-Che’zy equation: Qp = (AR2/3S1/2)/n

Read Also: Considerations in the design of stormwater channels

What is a Barrage?

A barrage, by definition, is a wire structure fitted with gates to regulate the water level in the river in order to divert the water to a canal situated at the bank of the river for the purpose of irrigation, domestic use, power generation, and flow augmentation to another river.

Read Also: 7 Ways To Handle Flooding in Any Part of Nigeria

7 Ways To Handle Flooding in Any Part of Nigeria

By Engr. John Cee Onwualu (FNSE)

Flooding is a very serious issue in Nigeria, as it can lead to significant damage to property and even loss of life.

Floods can occur due to heavy seasonal rains or from overflowing bodies of water such as rivers and oceans. Flooding can be a major problem for those living in areas with low-lying land or in cities where there is poor drainage.

In order to handle flooding in any area of Nigeria, there are a variety of strategies that can be implemented. This article lists 7 ways that you can handle flooding in any area of Nigeria.

These strategies can be used by individuals, organizations, and governments to reduce the destruction caused by flooding and ensure the safety of those living in affected areas.

Whether you are living in a rural area or a city, these strategies will help you to be better prepared for a flood and handle it in the most effective way possible.

When it comes to flooding in Nigeria, prevention is key. We must work together to develop a comprehensive plan that includes early warning systems, improved infrastructure, and risk management strategies to ensure we are better prepared to handle future floods.John Cee Onwualu

1. Utilize sandbags to limit the amount of water entering buildings

Sandbags are an effective tool to help keep water out of buildings, and they can be used to divert water away from buildings and other areas.

Sandbags should be placed around the outside of buildings, and in areas where water would otherwise enter. As sandbags are not permanent solutions, they should be checked regularly and replaced when needed.

2. Elevate electrical components and other sensitive items to avoid water damage

Electrical components, furniture, appliances, and other sensitive items should be lifted off the ground and placed in elevated areas to avoid water damage.

If possible, use thick plastic sheeting to cover items before moving them to higher grounds. The plastic sheeting will help shield the items from further water damage.

Additionally, it is imperative to unplug all electrical appliances and devices to avoid electric shock.

Furthermore, it is strongly recommended to turn off the main water valve to prevent water from entering the property.

3. Identify any potential sources of flooding and take steps to mitigate them

One of the most important steps to take in handling flooding is to understand the potential sources of flooding in any particular area. This could include rivers, natural creeks, and other sources of water that could potentially rise and overflow.

Mitigation measures could include constructing berms, installing drainage systems, or even dredging.

It is also important to consider factors such as the newly constructed buildings, paving, roads and other impediments to natural drainage that could serve as sources of flooding.

Understanding these potential sources of flooding in any area can greatly reduce the risk of a flood event.

4. Ensure adequate drainage and water runoff is maintained

Ensuring adequate drainage and water runoff is an essential step in preventing flooding. Poor drainage and runoff can lead to an accumulation of water in certain areas, which can quickly lead to flooding.

To maintain adequate drainage, check the area for clogged drains, overgrown vegetation, and any other blockages that may impede water flow and cause flooding.

Additionally, when constructing buildings or other structures, ensure that the design allows for proper water runoff, and that any wall, pavement, or other materials used are designed to be water-resistant.

5. Regularly inspect your building for any signs of water damage

Water damage can be caused by flooding or excessive moisture, and it can cause long-term damage to your building’s structure, insulation, and electrical and plumbing systems.

Make it a priority to regularly check your building for any signs of water damage and address any issues that may arise.

Additionally, address any existing water damage as soon as possible and make sure to use only qualified professionals to repair any damage and prevent it from happening again.

6. Develop and practice an emergency plan if flooding occurs

As flooding can occur unexpectedly, it is important to have an emergency plan in place prior to a disaster.

Developing and practising an emergency plan is especially important in areas of Nigeria that are prone to flooding. The plan should include where to go, what to do, and how to stay in contact with family and friends.

It is also important to include in the plan, steps to take after the flooding has subsided, such as returning home safely, disposing of any materials damaged by the flooding, and cleaning up the area.

Taking the time to plan in advance can help reduce the impact of flooding in any area of Nigeria.

7. Have an emergency kit with supplies readily available

Have an emergency kit with supplies readily available. Flooding can lead to a loss of power, food shortages, and other disasters, so it’s important to have a well-stocked emergency kit ready to go.

Make sure your kit includes food, water, and medical supplies, as well as a battery-powered radio and flashlights. Blankets, clothing, and other items may also be helpful.

Additionally, make sure you have any important documents, such as medical records and insurance information, stored in a waterproof container.

Read Also: Recommendations for Stormwater Management and Control

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, it is essential to be proactive in protecting your home and belongings from the impact of flooding. Taking the necessary steps to prepare for and mitigate flooding is the best way to protect yourself, your family and your property.

By following the above tips and advice, you can ensure that any area of Nigeria is prepared for flooding and equipped to handle it in the best way possible.

Read more about Jefcon & Associates

7 Things You Need to Know Before Hiring A STORMWATER CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

By Engr. John Cee Onwualu (FNSE)

When it comes to stormwater drainage construction, it is important to hire a reputable and experienced company. The process is complex and requires a number of steps to ensure the job is done correctly and efficiently.

If you are considering hiring a stormwater drainage construction company, there are a few things you need to know before making a decision.

Knowing the details of the project, understanding the regulations and permit requirements, and assessing the credentials of the company you are hiring are just a few of the important factors to consider.

In this article, we take a look at 7 key things you should know before hiring a stormwater drainage construction company.

From understanding the scope of the project to making sure you’re getting the best value, this article provides you with the information you need to make an informed decision and ensure you hire the best company for the job.

1. Ensure they are fully licensed and insured

When considering engaging a storm water drainage construction company, it is essential to check that the company is fully licensed and insured.

Ensure that the company’s license is up-to-date and that it carries the necessary insurance. Doing so will provide assurance that the company is reputable and that any liability issues are covered.

Furthermore, verify that the company’s employees are qualified and have all the required certifications to work in the storm water drainage construction industry.

With the experiences of highly trained Professional Engineers and Consultants pulled together, Jefcon provides high precision Mechanical, Electrical, Water Resources and Environmental Engineering services to Public, Private, Local and International economies.

The company also provides Industrial Support Services to Oilfield production and facilities as well as Consultancy services in Project & Facilities Management.

Read Also: Recommendations for Stormwater Management and Control

2. Verify they have a good reputation

Before hiring a stormwater drainage construction company, make sure you check their reputation by researching reviews and client testimonials.

See how long they have been in business and take into consideration any certifications or qualifications that could ensure they are experienced in the field.

You should also make sure the company is licensed and insured in your state. Doing your due diligence can save you a lot of hassle in the future.

3. Confirm They Have Experience with Similar Projects

Before committing to a stormwater drainage construction company, it is important to make sure they have experience with similar projects. Ask to see a portfolio of their previous works and inquire about their experience with drainage systems in your area.

It is also a good idea to ask for references from other customers, so you can get a clear sense of their professionalism and quality of work. Doing your due diligence upfront is the best way to ensure you are working with a reputable drainage construction company that is capable of providing the results you are looking for.

For more clarification, request a detailed list of their services. Ask the company to provide you with a comprehensive list of services, personnel, including the types of projects they specialize in and have handled. This information can help you make sure the company you choose is right for your needs and that they have the skills and experience to complete your project.

Click Here to see the list of Quality Services for Jefcon & Associates Ltd.

4. Check That They Provide a Detailed Proposal

Before hiring a storm water drainage construction company, make sure they provide a detailed proposal that outlines the project management in full.

This should include an overview of the proposed construction, the scope definition and work breakdown, the plan schedule for completion, estimated costs, quality assurance and quality control plans, list of personnel to be involved, risk management plan, and procurement processes in the project. You will also identify the stakeholders and their involvement.

A comprehensive proposal will help you understand the scope of the project and ensure that the company is qualified to complete the work. Additionally, it should provide you with a clear idea of the timeline and budget, allowing you to make an informed decision.

Getting clarification on the estimated costs is important. It is important you understand all the costs associated with the project construction and that what has been estimated is reasonable for the scope of the job.

Ask for a full breakdown of the costs and any other costs you might have to pay. It’s also important to get clarity on who is responsible for the payment of any subcontractors or suppliers. Make sure to factor in any additional fees or taxes that may be applicable.

5. Consider Their Approach to Storm Water Drainage

When looking at companies that build stormwater drainage systems, it’s important to think about how they design and build drainage systems.

The right design, equipment application and materials can make a big difference in the long-term efficiency and cost of a drainage system.

Also, the company should know about any local government rules about storm water drainage in order to make sure they are followed.

Ask potential companies about their experience and ask for examples of drainage systems they have constructed in the past. This will help you make an informed decision.

6. Make sure they can accommodate your timeline

It’s important to select a stormwater drainage construction company that can meet your timeline. Find out if they have a timeline that is realistic and achievable.

Also, ensure that they have the personnel and resources to complete the project within the timeframe you have set. Equally, be certain that they have a plan for dealing with any unexpected delays or issues that may arise.

7. Ensure they use the right tools and materials

The seventh point to consider when hiring a stormwater drainage construction company is that they should use the right equipment, experienced personnel, and quality materials for the job.

This means making sure that the company is using a healthy equipment, experienced personnel, use of quality materials and applying good techniques that meet the quality standard requirement, as provided in the codes of engineering practice.

Working with a company that is not using the right tools and materials can result in costly delays and possible safety risks. When considering hiring a stormwater drainage construction company, be sure to ask about the materials and tools they use and if they are up to date and compliant with current regulations.


Final Thoughts

In conclusion, having a reliable stormwater drainage construction company is essential to your project’s success. Finding the right one requires research, planning, and due diligence.

With these 7 considerations in mind, you can feel confident in your ability to choose the right stormwater drainage construction company for your needs.

Jefcon & Associates Ltd. meets all standardized criteria for managing stormwater projects anywhere around the world.

Click Here to learn more about Jefcon & Associates Ltd.


By Engineer John Cee Onwualu (FNSE)

Storm Water Project in Delta State, Nigeria.

In my last post, I took a deep dive into the details of the findings and observations for Storm Water Management and Control Measures for Asaba, Warri, Effurun, and the environs.

It is clear that the topography of Asaba and its environs and that of Warri, Effurun, and its environs have similarities in their flood management and control approaches.

There were recommendations for optimal and efficient Pre-cast Open and Closed (underground sewers) concrete systems put forward for consideration and implementation for these project areas.

This article enumerates the merits to be derived from the use of these recommended pre-cast concrete structural elements of rectangular, square, and circular channels.

1) The use of precast primary receivers for the construction of the downstream channels to receive storm water discharges from the streets’ right-of-way will reduce the construction time required for evacuation of the current flooding menace that is being encountered in the environment, since non-functioning drains will now have discharge points.

Storm Water Construction at Effurun, Delta State.

2) There are savings in project delivery in terms of time, handling, and cost optimization during fabrication and execution of the project, since all these various types of channels with different operations will run simultaneously.

Construction of Drains at Okpanam, Delta State.

3) There is reduced construction risk to workers and passers-by during deep execution works since earth-moving equipment will be deployed for the placement of heavy precast concrete elements in deep excavations. This will improve the overall safety rating of the project.

Okpanam Drainage Construction, Delta State, Nigeria

4) There will be reduced exposure time to the excavated sections with the use of precast structural elements over cast-in-place concrete types, as the works are in built-up areas. This will improve the overall safety rating of the project.

Construction Work at Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria.

5) There is no need for long-exposed excavated trenches, as is the case with cast-in-place concrete, since smaller segments of work excavation are needed to place the precast elements.

6) The use of precast concrete structural elements will reduce in situ construction errors, which would create greater quality control on the project.

Storm Water Construction at Effurun, Delta State.

7) Finally, with adequate funding, the State government would complete the project within a short time, which would save her citizens the agony of economic and human losses occasioned with the hazardous and devastating flood water.

I hope that the state governments of different nations can take a keen look at the merits of these recommendations, and execute them where necessary.

Recommendations for Stormwater Management and Control

By Engineer John Cee Onwualu (FNSE)

Recommendations for Stormwater Management and ControlRecommendations for Stormwater Management and ControlRecommendations for Stormwater Management and Control

The details from the findings and observations of this study and design by Jefcon & Associates Ltd (Consultant) for the Stormwater Management and Control Measures for Asaba, Warri, Effurun and environs, showed that the topography of Asaba & its environs and that of Warri, Effurun & environs have similarities in its flood management and control approaches. 

Due to the nature of the terrains, the study on these cities and their environs have recommended optimal and efficient Pre-cast Open and Closed (underground sewers) concrete systems.  Therefore, the recommendations put forward for consideration and implementation for both project areas are that: 

1. The natural watercourses and downstream primary drainage channels should be considered as Priority No.1.  This involves clearing of the natural watercourses of weeds, waste, silt deposits and demolition of encroached properties along their paths; and construction of the downstream primary drainage channels that would receive flood water from the streets’ drains to these natural watercourses.  This will bring immediate improvements to flood water discharge on existing systems that do not have discharge points.

Recommendations for Stormwater Management and Control

2. Canalization of some of the watercourses with concrete mattresses, (See the figure above) is recommended as Priority No.2.  This involves the construction of 6m – 10m wide trapezoidal channels made with concrete mattresses. This will stop encroachment by property developers and create a definite demarcation of the natural watercourses. This will bring improvement on the existing systems while the construction of new infrastructures for more efficient and effective evacuation of flood water from the environment would be in progress.

Recommendations for Stormwater Management and Control

3. The need for updated Survey Maps for Asaba, Warri, Effurun, and environs by the Delta State Ministry of Lands and Survey is recommended as Priority No.3.  The presence of these maps will aid future planning and construction of infrastructural developments, as the lack of these maps has caused delays and increased project cost.

Recommendations for Stormwater Management and Control

4. With the implementation of items. 1 &2 above, the need to construct drainage channels in flood-prone areas is recommended as Priority No. 4. The construction of these street drainage channels (tertiary and secondary channels) in the identified flood-prone areas will create greater improvement in flood management and control of the environment.

Recommendations for Stormwater Management and Control

5. Government Ministries and Agencies in charge of urban development must stop approval of property developments on the natural watercourses and streets’ rights-of-way while identifying and demolishing those properties built on these mapped-out routes for quick evacuation of the flood water generated within the environment.

Recommendations for Stormwater Management and Control

6. Government Ministries and Agencies in charge of drainages must have a holistic maintenance and repair response plan with a motivated team.  This team should carry out a quick repair to damages on drainage channels as well as carry out periodic manual de-silting of the drainage channels.

Recommendations for Stormwater Management and Control

7. The State Orientation Agency and similar Agencies in charge of public enlightenment should do more at educating the populace on the hazards associated with the discharge of waste materials and blocking of drains and natural watercourses, as studies have shown that some see it as a normal way of living.

Recommendations for Stormwater Management and Control

8. The government should make it mandatory for property developers to create more areas for grassing and vegetation than stone or concrete interlocking pavements, as the use of the latter increases runoff in the streets.

In the next article, we take a look at the merits of these recommended options.

Considerations in the design of stormwater channels

By Engineer John Cee Onwualu (FNSE)

There are many important considerations in the design of durable stormwater channels, and the next series of posts considers some of them.

Time of Concentration (Tc)

The time of concentration (Tc), is defined as the longest time it takes the rain falling at the most distant point within a watershed to reach the point under reference. It is one of the most important variables in the estimation of design discharges.

It should be noted that while dealing in watersheds with flat terrain or low topographic slopes, the calculation of Tc, using commonly accepted equations often results in unreasonably large values.

That is, as the slope approaches zero, the travel time approaches infinity. Through research work, it is recommended that an adjustment of 0.005 be made to the slope in both the Kerby and Kirpich methods to allow for more realistic results.

The adjusted slope becomes Slow Slope = So + 0.0005 ….…………… Eq. 3

Therefore, if So ≤ 0.002 m/m (0.2%), a low slope condition exists, and adjustments should be made.

There is also another method of computing Tc, using the application of Kerby formula, which is expressed as:

tc = 1.44(Ln)0.467S-0.235 …………………………………………………………. Eq. 4

Flow Length, L = {[tc/1.44]1/0.467}/ns-0.467 ……………………………. Eq. 4.1

Retardance roughness coefficient,

n = {(tc/0.1.44)1/0.467}/Ls-0.5 ……………… Eq. 4.2

One of the common methods for estimating the Time of Concentration (Tc), is the application of Kirpich formula.

This is expressed as:

tc = 0.0195{L0.770/S0.385} ……………….…………………….………………. Eq. 5

Travel Length, L = {tcS0.385/0.0195}1/0.770 …………….……………. Eq. 5.1

Slope, So = {0.0195L0.770/tc}1/0.385 ……………………………………. Eq. 5.2


tc = is in minutes.

L = maximum length of travel in meters.

S = slope of the catchment in mm-1 over the total length, L.

Kirpich method yields very conservative or short times of concentration that result in high peak runoff rates, especially from the Rational method.

Kerby – Kirpich Method

The Kerby – Kirpich method of computing time of concentration (Tc), is one of the best approaches, which produces Tc estimates that are consistent with watershed time values independently derived from real world storms and runoff hydrographs.

This is expressed as: Tc = Inlet time + Channel flow time Tc = tov + tch …………………………………………………………………… Eq. 6

Tc = tov + (0.0195L0.770/(√so)0.770) ……………………………… Eq. 6.1


tov = overland flow time tch = channel flow time

The Kerby – Kirpich method for estimating Tc is applicable to watersheds ranging from 0.70Km2 to 389 Km2, main channel lengths between 1600m and 80000m, and main channel slopes of between 0.002 and 0.02 (m/m).

In the next post in the series, we look at OVERLAND FLOW and CHANNEL FLOW.

Channel Selection for Stormwater Control

By Engineer John Cee Onwualu (FNSE)

In channel selection for control of stormwater in Asaba, Warri, Effurun, and environs, great care was taken in channel depth selection because of the high-water table, especially in Effurun and Warri Metropolis.

The shapes and types of hydraulic channel sections recommended for use were dependent on the magnitude of the designed peak flow discharge of the floodwater, topography, and geology of the project areas.  This contributed to the various shapes and types adopted such as cast-in-place Concrete or Precast Concrete Rectangular, Square, and Circular shapes.

In the design of stormwater drainage systems, manholes are the most common appurtenances because of their various uses.  Their primary functions include:

  1. Providing maintenance access.
  2. Serving as junctions when two or more channels merge.
  3. Providing flow transitions for changes in channel sizes, slope, and alignment.
  4. Providing ventilation.

Manholes are generally made of precast or cast-in-place reinforced concrete. They are typically 1.2m to 1.5m in internal dimension and are required at regular intervals, even in straight sections, for maintenance reasons.

Manholes provide gradual transitions from circular pipe flow to box ducts flow (open or closed) alignment to minimize energy losses.  Another primary function is to provide a transition that minimizes erosion in the receiving water body.

From the hydraulic design analyses carried out, which were based on the results of the hydrological analyses of the drainage basins, various types of drainage channels were recommended for use, such as Rectangular, Square, and Circular shapes. 

These recommended channel sections were for the Tertiary, Secondary, and Primary channels that would safely and efficiently convey the Stormwater to River Niger and Warri River.